Posts Tagged ‘reconstruction’

Publications

Books

Terzis, J.K.: HISTORY of MICROSURGERY – 5 Generations from 1957. IIRM, 2007

Terzis, J.K., Guest Editor. Obstetrical Brachial Plexus Paralysis, Part 2. Seminars in Plastic Surgery. Thieme, 2005

Terzis, J.K., Guest Editor. Obstetrical Brachial Plexus Paralysis, Part 1. Seminars in Plastic Surgery. Thieme, 2004

Terzis, J.K., Smith, K.: Peripheral Nerve: Structure, Function and Reconstruction. Raven Press, 1990

Terzis, J.K.: Microreconstruction of Nerve Injuries. W.B. Saunders Co., 1987

Terzis, J.K.: Peripheral Nerve Microsurgery – Clinics in Plastic Surgery. W.B. Saunders Co., January, 1984

Daniel, R.K., Terzis, J.K.: Reconstructive Microsurgery. Little Brown and Company, 1977

Dissertation

Terzis, J.K.: Functional Aspects of Cutaneous Reinnervation. Ph.D. Thesis, McGill University, 1981

 

Essays

Terzis, J.K.: Functional Aspects of Reinnervation of Free Skin Grafts. Essay submitted to the Scholarship Essay Contest of the Educational Foundation of the American Society of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgeons. Received first prize (1975).

Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Vol. 58, No. 58, No. 2:142-156, 1976

 

Reviews

Terzis, J.K., Dykes, R.W., Hakstian, R.: Electrophysiological Recordings in Peripheral Nerve Surgery: A Review. J Hand Surg 1976 Jul:1(1):52-66

Terzis, J.K., Daniel, R.K., William, H.B., Spencer, P.S.: Benign Fatty Tumors of the Peripheral Nerves. Ann Plast Surg 1978 Mar:1(2):193-216

Terzis, J.K.: Peripheral Nerve Surgery: Current State of the Art. Clin Plast Surg, April 1979

 

Chapters

Terzis, J.K.: Sensory Mapping. In: Clinics in Plastic Surgery 3:59-64, 1976

Terzis, J.K., Dykes, R.W.: Electrophysiological Techniques for Use in the Surgery of Peripheral Nerves Serving the Hand. In: The Hand. Ed. by Tubiana. W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, PA 1976

Terzis, J.K., Williams, H.B.: Experimental Evaluation of Free Nerve Grafts. In: Microsurgery. Ed. by Daniller & Strauch. C.V. Mosby Co., St. Louis, MO 1976

Daniel, R.K., Terzis, J.K.: Neurovascular Free Flaps. In: Microsurgery. Ed. by Daniller & Strauch. C.V. Mosby Co., St. Louis, MO 1976

Dykes, R.W., Terzis, J.K.: Functional Anatomy of the Deep Ulnar Motor Branch. In: Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research. 128:167-179, 1977

Terzis, J.K., Daniel, R.K., Williams, H.B.: Intraoperative Assessment of Nerve Lesions with Fascicular Dissection and Electrophysiological Recordings. In: Management of Peripheral Nerve Problems. W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, PA 1978

Orgel, M., Terzis, J.K.: Coordination of Axon Neurophysiology and Axon Counting Techniques for Nerve Regeneration. In: Management of Peripheral Nerve Problems. W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, PA 1978

Terzis, J.K.: Functional Anatomy of the Peripheral Nerve. In: Symposium of the Neurologic Aspects of Plastic Surgery. C.V. Mosby Co., St. Louis, MO 1978

Daniel, R.K., Terzis, J.K., May, J.W.: Neurovascular Free Flaps. In: Microsurgical Composite Tissue Transplantation. Ed. by Serafin, D. and Buncke, H.J. W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, PA, 1978

Terzis, J.K.: Patterns of Cutaneous Innervation and Reinnervation Following Nerve Transection. In: Posttraumatic Peripheral Nerve Regeneration: Experimental Basis and Clinical Implications. Ed. by Gorio, A., Millesi, H., and Mingrino, S. Raven Press, New York, NY, 1981

Benatar, D., Terzis, J.K., Williams, H.B.: The Relevance of Preliminary Denervation in Muscle Transplantation. In: Muscle Transplantation. Ed. by Freilinger, Holel, and Carlson. Springer-Verlag-Wien, New York, NY 1981

Terzis, J.K.: Structure, Function and Healing of the Peripheral Nerve. In: The Outline of the Basic Sciences as Related to the Musculocutaneous System. Ed. by Cruess, R.L. Churchill Livingstone, 1982

Terzis, J.K.: Traumatic Neuropathies – Update in Diagnosis and Treatment. In: Clinical Frontiers in Reconstructive Microsurgery. Ed. by Furnas-Buncke. C.V. Mosby Co., St. Louis, MO, 1982

Terzis, J.K., Breidenbach, W.: Surgical Treatment of Peripheral Nerve Injuries in Children. In: Pediatric Plastic Surgery. Ed. by Serafin and Georgiade. C.V. Mosby Co., St. Louis, MO, 1984, Vol. II

Millesi, H., Terzis, J.K.: Nomenclature in Peripheral Nerve Surgery: A Committee Report of the International Society of Reconstructive Microsurgery. Clin Plast Surg, Jan;11(1):3-8, 1984

Publicover, N., Terzis, J.K.: Experimental Electrophysiologic Recordings: Interpretation of the Compound Action Potential. In: Clinics in Plastic Surgery, Jan;11(1)39-45, 1984

Terzis, J.K., Publicover, N.: Clinical Electrophysiologic Peripheral Nerve Recordings. In: Clinics in Plastic Surgery, Jan; 11(1)47-52, 1984

Breidenbach, W., Terzis, J.K.: The Anatomy of Free Vascularized Nerve Grafts. In: Clinics in Plastic Surgery, Jan;11(1)65-71, 1984

Hamilton, S.G.L., Terzis, J.K.: Surgical Anatomy of Donor Sites for Free Muscle Transplantation to the Paralyzed Face. In: Clinics in Plastic Surgery, Jan;11(1)197-201, 1984

Lee, K.K., Terzis, J.K.: Management of Acute Extratemporal Facial Nerve Palsy. In: Clinics in Plastic Surgery, Jan;11(1)203-210, 1984

Terzis, J.K.: Clinical Microsurgery of the Peripheral Nerve: State of the Art. Clin Plast Surg, Apr;6(2):247-267, 1979

Carson, K.A., Terzis, J.K.: Carbonic Anhydrase Histochemistry: A Convenient Diagnostic Method in Peripheral Nerve Repair. In: Clinics in Plastic Surgery, Apr;12(2):227-232, 1985

Lee, K.K., Terzis, J.K.: Reanimation of the Eye Sphincter. In: Facial Nerve. Ed. by Portmann. M. Masson Publishing, USA, Inc., 1985

Terzis, J.K., Breidenbach, W.: The Anatomy of Free Vascularized Nerve Grafts. In: Microreconstruction of Nerve Injuries. Ed. by Terzis, J.K. W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, PA, 101-116, 1987

Terzis, J.K., Publicover, N.G.: Clinical Application of Electrophysiologic Recordings. In: Microreconstruction of Nerve Injuries. Ed. by Terzis, J.K. W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, PA, 203-210, 1987

Slingluff, C.L., Terzis, J.K., Edgerton, M.T.: The Quantitative Microanatomy of the Brachial Plexus in Man: Reconstructive Relevance. In: Microreconstruction of Nerve Injuries. Ed. by Terzis, J.K. W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, PA, 285-324, 1987

Lee, K.K., Terzis, J.K.: Microsurgical Reanimation of the Eye Sphincter. In: Microreconstruction of Nerve Injuries. Ed. by Terzis, J.K. W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, PA, 635-650, 1987

Terzis, J.K., Liberson, W.T., Maragh, H.A.: Motorcycle Brachial Plexopathy. In: Microreconstruction of Nerve Injuries. Ed. by Terzis, J.K. W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, PA, 361-384, 1987

Liberson, W.T., Terzis, J.K.: Contribution of Clinical Neurophysiology and Rehabilitation Medicine to the Management of Brachial Plexus Palsy. In: Microreconstruction of Nerve Injuries. Ed. Terzis, J.K. W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, PA, 555-567, 1987

Lee, K.K., Terzis, J.K.: Management of Acute Extratemporal Facial Palsy. In: Microreconstruction of Nerve Injuries. Ed. by Terzis, J.K. W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, PA, 587-600, 1987

Terzis, J.K., Liberson, W.T., Levine, R.: Our Experience with Obstetrical Brachial Plexus Palsy. In: Microreconstruction of Nerve Injuries. Ed. by Terzis, J.K. W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, PA, 513-528, 1987

Publicover, N.G., Terzis, J.K.: Physiologic Assessment of Nerve Injuries. In: Microreconstruction of Nerve Injuries. Ed. by Terzis, J.K. W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, PA, 83-95, 1987

Millesi, H., Terzis, J.K.: Nomenclature in Peripheral Nerve Surgery. In: Microreconstruction of Nerve Injuries. Ed. by Terzis, J.K. W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, PA, 3-13, 1987

Hamilton, S.G.L., Terzis, J.K., Carraway, J.H.: Surgical Anatomy of the Facial Musculature and Muscle Transplantation. In: Microreconstruction of Nerve Injuries. Ed. by Terzis, J.K. W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, PA, 571-586, 1987

Terzis, J.K.: Reinnervation of Glabrous Skin in Primates. In: Effects of Injury on Trigeminal and Spinal Somatosensory Systems. Ed. by Pubols, L., Sessle, B. Alan R. Liss, Inc., 37-42, 1987

Hamilton, S.G.L., Terzis, J.K.: Surgical Anatomy of the Facial Musculature and Muscle Transplantation. In: Textbook of Microsurgery. Ed. by Brunelli, G. Masson Publishing Co., 1988

Publicover, N.G., Terzis, J.K.: Physiologic Assessment of Nerve Injuries. In: Textbook of Microsurgery. Ed. by Brunelli, G. Masson Publishing Co., 1988

Terzis, J.K., Publicover, N.G.: Clinical Application of Electrophysiological Recordings. In: Textbook of Microsurgery. Ed. by Brunelli, G. Masson Publishing Co,. 1988

Kaplan, I.B., Gilbert, D.A., Terzis, J.K.: The Vascularized Fascia of the Scalp. In: Textbook of Microsurgery. Ed. by Brunelli, G. Masson Publishing Co., 1988

Lee, K.K., Terzis, J.K.: Microsurgical Reanimation of the Eye Sphincter. In: Textbook of Microsurgery. Ed. by Brunelli, G. Masson Publishing Co., 1988

Terzis, J.K., Maragh, H.: Brachial Plexus Injuries. In: Current Therapy in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Ed. by Marsh, J.L. B.C. Decker, Inc., Philadelphia, PA, Vol. 2, pp. 183-192, 1989

Terzis, J.K., Maragh, H.: Microsurgical Management of Brachial Plexopathies. In: Advances in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Ed. by Mutaz, H. Mosby Year Book, Inc., Chicago, IL, Vol. 7, 1989

Terzis, J.K., Smith, K.: Repair and Grafting of the Peripheral Nerve. In: Plastic Surgery. Ed. by McCarthy, J. W.B. Saunders, Co., Philadelphia, PA, Vol. 1, pp. 630-697, 1990

Terzis, J.K.: Reconstructive Microsurgery of Peripheral Nerves: Principles and Clinical Applications. In: Plastic Surgery. Ed. by Ioannovits, J., Athens, Greece, 1990

Terzis, J.K., Schnarrs, R.H.: Facial Nerve Reconstruction in Salivary Gland Tumors. In: Salivary Gland Tumors. Ed. by Hanna & Granick. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, MD, 1990

Terzis, J.K.: Microneurovascular Free Transfer of Pectoralis Minor Muscle for Facial Reanimation. In: Grabb’s Encyclopedia of Flaps. Ed. by Strauch, B., Vasconez, L., Hall-Findley, E. Little Brown and Co, Boston, MA, Vol. 1, 1990

Terzis, J.K., Michelow, B.J.: Sensory Receptors. In: Operative Nerve Repair and Reconstruction. Ed. by Gelberman, R. J.B. Lippincott Co., Philadelphia, PA, 1991

Terzis, J.K., Schnarrs, R.H.: Facial Nerve Construction in Salivary Gland Tumors. In: Microsurgery. Ed. by John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, NY, 1993.

 

Articles in Peer Reviewed Journals

Terzis, J.K., Faibisoff, B., Williams, H.B.: Use of Polyethylene Bag Background in Microsurgical Repair of Peripheral Nerves. Plast & Reconstr Surg, 53(5):596-597, 1972

Chiu, C.J., Terzis, J.K., MacRae, M.L.: Replacement of Superior Vena Cava with the Spiral Composite Vein Graft. The Ann of Thor Surg, Vol. 17, No. 6, June, 1974

Terzis, J.K., Faibisoff, B., Williams, H.B.: A Diamond Knife for Microsurgical Repair of Peripheral Nerves. Plast & Reconstr Surg, 54:1:102-103, 1974

Terzis, J.K., Williams, H.B.: Functional Aspects of Reinnervation of Skin Grafts. Surg Forum. 25:518-519, 1974

Daniel, R.K., Terzis, J.K., Schwarz, G.: Neurovascular Free Flaps: A Preliminary Report. Plast & Reconstr Surg, 56(1):13-20, 1975

Terzis, J.K., Faibisoff, B., Williams, H.B.: The Nerve Gap: Suture Under Tension vs. Nerve Graft. Plast & Reconstr Surg, 56(2):166-170, 1975

Daniel, R.K., Terzis, J.K., Midgley, R., Williams, H.B.: Neurovascular Free Flaps. In the International Proceedings of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 1975

Terzis, J.K.: Functional Aspects of Reinnervation of Free Skin Grafts. Plast & Reconstr Surg, Aug:58(2):142-156, 1976

Daniel, R.K., Terzis, J.K., Cunningham, H.M.: Sensory Skin Flaps for Coverage of Pressure Sores in Paraplegic Patients: A Preliminary Report. Plast & Reconstr Surg, 58(3):317-328, 1976

Williams, H.B., Terzis, J.K.: Single Fascicular Recordings: An Intraoperative Diagnostic Tool for the Management of Peripheral Nerve Lesions. Plast & Reconstr Surg, May;57(5):562-569, 1976

Williams, H.B., Terzis, J.K.: Single Fascicular Recordings: An Intraoperative Diagnostic Tool for the Management of Peripheral Nerve Lesions. Plast & Reconstr Surg, Jun;57(6):744-745, 1976

Daniel, R.K., Terzis, J.K., Midgley, R.D.: Restoration of Sensation to an Anesthetic Hand by a Free Neurovascular Flap from the Foot. Plast & Reconstr Surg, 57(3):275-280, 1976

Terzis, J.K., Dykes, R.W., Hakstian,R.W.: Electrophysiological Recordings in Peripheral Nerve Surgery: A Review. J Hand Surg, Jul;1(1):52-66, 1976

Orgel, M., Terzis, J.K.: Epineurial vs. Perineurial Repair: An Ultrastructural and Electrophysiological Study of Nerve Regeneration. Plast & Reconstr Surg, 60:80-91, 1977

Dykes, R.W., Terzis, J.K.: Functional Anatomy of the Deep Motor Branch of the Ulnar Nerve. Clin Orthop, Oct;(128):167-179, 1977

Terzis, J.K., Strauch, B.: Microsurgery of the Peripheral Nerve: A Physiological Approach. Clin Orthop, Jun;(133):39-48, 1978

Terzis, J.K., Sweet, R.C., Dykes, R.W., Williams, H.B.: Recovery of Function in Free Muscle Transplants Using Microneurovascular Anastomoses. J Hand Surg, Jan;3(1):37-59, 1978

Terzis, J.K., Daniel, R.K., Williams, H.B., Spencer, P.S.: Benign Fatty Tumors of the Peripheral Nerve. Ann Plast Surg, Mar;1(2):193-216, 1978

Strauch, B., Terzis, J.K.: Replantation of Digits. Clin Orthop, Jun;(133):35-38, 1978

Dykes, R.W., Terzis, J.K., Strauch, B.: Sensations from Surgically Transferred Glabrous Skin; Central Versus Peripheral Factor. Can J of Neurol Sci, Nov;6:(4):437-439, 1979

Terzis, J.K., Dykes, R.W.: Reinnervation of Glabrous Skin in Baboons: Properties of Cutaneous Mechanoreceptors Subsequent to Nerve Transection. J Neurophysiol, Dec;44(6):1214-1225, 1980

Terzis, J.K.: How is Microsurgical Research Funded? Int J of Microsurg, 273-274, 1980

Dykes, R.W., Terzis, J.K.: Spinal Nerve Distributions in the Upper Limb: The Organization of the Dermatome and Afferent Myotome. Philos Trans R Soc Lond, Aug;12:293(1070):509-554, 1981

Dykes, R.W., Terzis, J.K.: Reinnervation of Glabrous Skin in Baboons: Properties of Cutaneous Mechanoreceptors Subsequent to Nerve Crush. J Neurophysiol, Sep;42(5):1461-1478, 1979

Millesi, H., Terzis, J.K.: Problems of Terminology in Peripheral Nerve Surgery: A Committee Report of the International Society of Reconstructive Microsurgery. Microsurgery, 4(1):51-56, 1983

Dykes, R.W., Terzis, J.K., Turnbull, B.G.: Properties of Mechanoreceptive Fibres Serving Skin Grafts Transferred to the Hands of Adult Baboons (Papio Anubis). J Physiol (Lond), Dec;357:1-22, 1984

Terzis, J.K., Breidenbach, W.: Blood Supply of Vascularized Nerve Grafts. J Reconstr Microsurg, Oct;3(1):43-58, 1986

Freund, R.K., Terzis, J.K., Jordan, L., Taylor, G.: Modified Latissimus Dorsi and Teres Major Transfer for External Rotation Deficit of the Shoulder. Orthopaedics, Apr;9(4):505-506, 1986

Terzis, J.K., Liberson, W.T., Levine, R.: Obstetrical Brachial Plexus Palsy. Hand Clin, Apr;12(2):227-232, 1985

Terzis, J.K.: “deMedinaceli” Versus Microsuture: A Critical Appraisal of Nerve Repair. Proceedings from the 15th Annual Meeting of the Society for Neuroscience, 1985

Breidenbach, W., Terzis, J.K.: The Blood Supply of Vascularized Nerve Grafts. J Reconstr Microsurg, Oct;3(1):43-58, 1986

Breidenbach, W., Terzis, J.K.: Vascularized Nerve Grafts: An Experimental and Clinical Review. Ann Plast Surg, Feb;18(2):137-146, 1987

Breidenbach, W., Adamson, W., Terzis, J.K.: Medial Arm Flap Revisited. Ann Plast Surg, Feb;18(2):156-163, 1987

Gilbert D., Horton, C., Terzis, J.K., Devine, C., Winslow, B., Devine, P.: New Concepts in Phallic Reconstruction. Ann Plast Surg, Feb;18(2)128-136, 1987

Terzis, J.K.: A Review of Dr. Robert K. Leffert’s Book “Brachial Plexus Injuries”. Plast Reconstr Surg, Mar;79(3):485-486, 1987

Terzis, J.K., Smith, K.J.: Repair of Severed Peripheral Nerves: Comparison of the “deMedinaceli” and Standard Microsuture Methods. Exp Neurol, Jun;96(3):672-680, 1987

Terzis, J.K., Vincent, M.P., Wilkins, L.M., et al.: Breast Sensibility: A Neurophysiological Appraisal in the Normal Breast. Ann Plast Surg, Oct;19(4):318-322, 1987

Maragh, H., Hawn, R.S., Gould, J.D., Terzis, J.K.: Is Laser Nerve Repair Comparable to Microsuture Coaptation? J Reconstr Microsurg, Apr;4(3):189-195, 1988

Smith, K.J., Terzis, J.K., Erasmus, M., Carson, K.A.: Reinnervation of Denervated Skeletal Muscle by Central Nerve Fibers Regenerating Along Replanted Ventral Roots. Prog Brain Res, 78:193-198, 1988

Gilbert D.A., Williams, M.W., Horton, C.E., Terzis, J.K., et al: Phallic Reinnervation via the Pudendal Nerve. J Urol, Aug;140(2):295-299, 1988

Kaplan, I.B., Gilbert, D.A., Terzis, J.K.: The Vascularized Facia of the Scalp. J Reconstr Microsurg, Jan;5(1)7-15, 1989

Terzis, J.K.: Pectoralis Minor: A Unique Muscle for Correction of Facial Palsy. Plast Reconstr Surg, May;83(5):767-776, 1989

Terzis, J.K., Liberson, W.T., Peffley, C., Carson, K.A., Spurrier, D.: Reinnervation of Peripheral Nerve Grafts by Spinal Cord Fibres tested by Transcranial Brain Stimulation. Electromyogr Clin Neurophysiol, Nov-Dec;29(7-8):417-423, 1989

Terzis, J.K., Maragh, H.: Strategies in the Microsurgical Management of Brachial Plexus Injuries. Clin Plast Surg, Jul;16(3):605-616, 1989

Terzis, J.K.: 10 Years Experience with Facial Reanimation with Free Muscle Transplantation. Facial N Res Jpn, 9:1-2, 1989

Maragh, H., Meyer B., Davenport, D., Gould, J., Terzis, J.K.: Morphofunctional Evaluation of Fibrin Glue Versus Microsuture Nerve Repairs. J Reconstr Microsurg, Oct;6(4), 1990

Amadio, P., Mackinnon, S., Merritt, W., Brody, G., Terzis, J.K.: Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy Syndrome: Consensus Report of an Ad Hoc Committee of the American Association for Hand Surgery on the Definition of Reflex Sympathetic Syndrome. Plast Reconstr Surg, Vol. 87, pp. 371-375, 1991

Terzis, J.K.: “Babysitter”: An Exciting New Concept in Facial Reanimation. In: The Facial Nerve. Proceedings of the Sixth Int’l Symposium on the Facial Nerve, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, October 2-5, 1988. Ed. by Castro. Kugler & Ghedini Publications, Amsterdam, Holland, p. 525, 1990

Terzis, J.K.: Reanimation Procedures of the Eye Sphincter. In: The Facial Nerve. Proceedings of the Sixth Int’l Symposium on the Facial Nerve, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, October 2-5, 1988. Ed. by Castro. Kugler & Ghedini Publications, Amsterdam, Holland, p. 526, 1990

Terzis, J.K.: Microsurgical Management of Facial Paralysis with Cross-Facial Nerve Grafting and Free Muscle Transplantation. In: The Facial Nerve. Proceedings of the Sixth Int’l Symposium on the Facial Nerve, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, October 2-5, 1988. Ed. by Castro. Kugler & Ghedini Publications, Amsterdam, Holland, p. 553, 1990

Terzis, J.K.: Reply to Mr. Douglas Harrison, London, England. Plast Reconstr Surg, Mar;85(3)480-481, 1990

Terzis, J.K., Daigle, J.P.: New Data on Facial Nerve Anatomy and Electrophysiology for Safe Facial Aesthetic Surgery. In: Plastic Surgery, Vol. 1. Edited by U.T. Hinderer, Elsevier Science Publishers, B.V., Amsterdam, Holland, 1992

Jennings, J., Terzis, J.K.: A New Sciatic Function Index for the Guinea Pig. Submitted for publication to Experimental Neurology, August, 1992.

Terzis, J.K., Schnarrs, R.: Facial Nerve Reconstruction in Salivary Gland Pathology. Microsurgery, 14:355-367, 1993.

Terzis, J.K., Slater, Matt: Axonal Plasticity in Cross-Facial Nerve Grafting. Submitted for publication to J Reconstructive Microsurg, Feb 1993.

Kai, Han, Volpe, Charles, Terzis, J.K.: Functional Return after Global Avulsion Injury and PNS Tissue Implantation into the Spinal Cord. Submitted for publication to Resorative Neurology and Neuroscience, Aug 1993.

Terrell, Gregory S., Terzis, J.K.: An Experimental Model to Study the Blink Reflex. Submitted for publication to J Reconstructive Microsurg, Aug 1993.

Hanawawa, Shigeru, Prewitt, Russel L., Terzis, J.K.: The Effect of Pentoxifylline on Ischemia and Reperfusion Injury in the Rat Cremaster Muscle. To be published in J Reconstructive Microsurg, Jan; 10 (1) 21-26, 1994.

Nerve Injuries

Injuries to the peripheral nerves of the upper and lower limbs can be devastating. They can lead from temporary dysfunction to permanent paralysis of the affected extremity. Occasionally these type of injuries are associated with severe pain. Surgical repair of the injured nerve may not only reverse the paralysis but also may alleviate some of the pain.

Peripheral nerve injuries can be caused by the following mechanisms which can lead to either partial or complete transection of the involved nerve:
Stab wounds, gunshot wounds, or motor vehicle accidents these are usually complex injuries involving sometimes the bones, the nerves, the muscles and vessels.
Work related injuries. (i.e. amputations or avulsions of the arm) removal of nerve tumors with residual nerve paralysis.
Iatrogenic causes such as, inadvertent nerve injury during any type of surgery, sciatic nerve injection injuries or traction injury of the nerves of the lower extremity during sports or stabilization of fractures.

The surgical correction of these injuries usually involves exploration of the site, identification of the proximal and distal nerve ends, diagnosis of the lesion, establishing a strategy for reconstruction, going over it in detail with the patient and finally reconstruction. The surgery may be staged. If there is simultaneous vessel injury then a vascular surgeon is consulted in order to restore adequate circulation to the affected limb, so its survival is not threatened. Correction of bone fractures is essential before any attempt to correct the nerve injury is made. Therefore peripheral nerve injuries can range from simple injury limited to just the nerve, where the role of the microsurgeon is of prime importance, to complex injuries of the whole limb. In the latter cases different surgical specialties may work together to assure the salvage of the limb.

Brachial Plexus Injuries

The Brachial Plexus is an extremely complex network of nerves that starts from the spinal cord at the level of the neck and gives innervation to the entire upper extremity, both for motion and sensation.

Trauma Related Paralysis

Paralysis of the brachial plexus in adults occurs mainly secondary to high velocity trauma. The most common cause is motor-vehicle accidents (cars, motorcycles, snowmobiles, etc.). Often, the patient may suffer other injuries that may be life threatening and need to be treated in an emergency basis i.e. vessel injuries, bone injuries, head injuries, abdominal and chest injuries.

Even if the brachial plexus injury is not life threatening, it can result in complete or partial paralysis of the entire upper arm and loss of sensation. This is obviously a devastating injury for the function of the patient. The patient with a diagnosed brachial plexus injury must be evaluated as soon as possible, because the shorter the time period between the traumatic event and the time treatment starts, the better the chance for the patient to regain function in his arm.Therefore the referral to the brachial plexus specialist should be done sooner, rather than later.

The reconstruction of the torn nerve elements in a patient with brachial plexus paralysis is usually staged. If the injury is very severe, at least two operations are required to reconnect the injured nerves. Often secondary operations are needed to transfer muscles from the legs to the affected arm in order to restore a missing function. The patient usually stays in the hospital for two or three days after the surgery and then is discharged. Postoperatively, the arm is immobilized in a brace. Following removal of the brace, in six to eight weeks, physical therapy commences. Usually, the operations are spaced so we can see what function has been regained in the arm and then formulate a plan for the next step of reconstruction.